Kanban from the Inside: 6. Leadership

The sixth in a roughly weekly series of excerpts from my book, Kanban from the Inside. Chapter 6 on leadership is pivotal – it brings together the preceding five values and the three still to come.

What if [Kanban’s at every level] kind of leadership doesn’t come naturally to your organization?

Fortunately, Kanban doesn’t leave you to solve this problem on your own. When change is stimulated, it creates leadership opportunities both large and small. The more widespread, repeatable, and visible this process is, the more positive its impact on your organization’s culture will be.

Opportunity Everywhere

Let’s test that. Where can we find these leadership opportunities?

  • Transparency: In knowledge work, things don’t make themselves visible or explicit by themselves; leaders choose to make them so. This is as true in the small details—the wording of a policy, for example—as it is in the bigger things, such as institutional feedback loops.
  • Balance: Where are we overloaded, and why? Are our pain points obvious, or does the volume of work hide them? Is the mix of work right? There is leadership opportunity in asking these questions as well as in the decisions that may follow.
  • Collaboration: Making an introduction, reaching out, sharing a problem, noticing how people interact—all of these can be acts of leadership.
  • Customer focus: It takes leadership to acknowledge that the process may be ineffective at discovering and meeting real customer needs.
  • Flow: Are you seeing it? What is stuck today? Where do blockages repeatedly occur? Why is that? These are everyday questions of leadership.
  • Leadership: Encouraging leadership in others can demand real leadership on the part of the encourager. Kanban’s kind of leadership not only spreads, it reinforces itself.

What conditions are needed if that kind of leadership is to thrive? The next three chapters cover the remaining three values, namely the leadership disciplines of understanding, agreement, and respect. These get to the heart of the Kanban Method’s approach to change.

Next up: 7. Understanding. Previously: 5. Flow. Start from the beginning: 1. Transparency.

Kanban from the Inside: 5. Flow

This post is the fifth in a roughly weekly series of excerpts from my book, Kanban from the Inside. Chapter 5 is on flow. Like the preceding chapter, it is inspired by the third of the Kanban Method’s core practices, Manage flow.

CP3 (expanded): Manage flow, seeking smoothness, timeliness, and good economic outcomes, anticipating customer needs.

Organizations often get deeper into trouble because people think that the answer is to keep trying harder. They think that better project management will fix a problem of capacity management (scapegoating project managers, meanwhile), that stronger functional management will improve end-to-end performance (when it can easily make it worse), or that people should just try to do better (when the system is fundamentally unreliable).

Kanban’s unusual solution to this problem isn’t to address head-on the roles of project management and functional management; certainly it does not set out to replace them immediately with other things. Instead, it gives managers (and others, too, of course) the tools to see work and how it flows in new ways, together with controls on WIP that impact dramatically on problems of delay and unpredictability. Allowed the right scope, the improvements and the necessary new thinking grow hand-in-hand. If roles then need to change, fine!

It would be a mistake to think that managing flow is only a matter of removing impediments as they arise. Typically in knowledge work, we see work items vary widely in both content and value, and we see the overall workload varying greatly over time. This means that there will always be a place for managing work proactively:

  • Unusual risks and dependencies must be identified early and managed effectively.
  • Looking toward the medium term, anticipated workload must be met with adequate capacity.
  • Longer term, entirely new capabilities might be needed.

Being committed to self-organization doesn’t mean that you must always shy away from managing the most important work items more carefully. Not all work items are alike, and some are considerably more deserving of management attention than others. Dates—meaningful dates, at least—should be met. And when it’s justified by the business opportunity, it’s perfectly valid to sacrifice a little predictability and allow high-value items to jump the queue.

Next up: 6. Leadership. Previously: 4. Customer Focus. Start from the beginning: 1. Transparency.

Kanban from the Inside: 4. Customer Focus

This is the fourth installment in a roughly weekly series of short excerpts from my book, Kanban from the Inside. Chapter 4 covers the fourth of the Kanban Method’s nine values, customer focus.

Core Practice 3: Manage Flow

Is this a mistake? How do we get from Manage Flow to customer focus? Indulge me for a moment—let me cheat a little, expanding the wording of this core practice to express more fully what this practice really means:

CP3 (expanded): Manage flow, seeking smoothness, timeliness, and good economic outcomes, anticipating customer needs.

This chapter focuses on customer needs and how to anticipate them better. Smoothness and timeliness are covered in the next chapter, on flow. Keep in mind “good economic outcomes” as you read both chapters; economic decision-making is covered in Chapter 15.

Why Customer Focus?

Task focus, role focus, team focus, project focus, product focus, company focus, technology focus . . . the list goes on. So many ways to lose sight of what we’re in business for!

Just as it does inside the delivery process, effectiveness upstream depends on the values we’ve explored so far:

  • Transparency: The system must make visible the difficult choices that need to be made. The decision-making rationale should itself be explicit. Decisions are the focus of feedback loops (prioritization meetings, for example).
  • Balance: The amount of WIP in the system is controlled, both to maintain a reliable supply of high-quality ideas and to force timely decision making. If needed, additional control can be gained by allocating WIP by customer, budget line, risk category, strategic initiative, and so on.
  • Collaboration: The work of qualifying items for further development is shared among the originators of those items and the people who will service them. Instead of sucking risk into the system prematurely, all parties (and there may be several involved) keep their options open until commitment is timely.

Let’s see what customer focus adds:

  • Whose needs do we think are met by these ideas?
  • Are we meeting needs fast enough?
  • What is the data telling us? What are people telling us?
  • What might lie behind those needs?
  • What needs might be going unmet?
  • How can we test that?

In short: Can we develop a better sense for what will be needed?

Anticipating Needs

If there’s a single idea that I’d like you to take away from this chapter, it’s making the mental shift away from doing what is asked, taking orders, fulfilling requests, meeting requirements, and so on, and reorienting the process toward discovering and meeting needs. It’s a shift from an internal perspective (what we think we know) to an external one (what’s still out there to be discovered). It’s also a shift from the past (what we’ve been told) to the future (when the customer’s need will be met).

Next up: 5. Flow. Previously 3. Collaboration: Start from the beginning: 1. Transparency.

Featureban updates, March ’15 edition

I’ve recently facilitated a number of Featureban sessions:

This coming Thursday evening I’ll be in Derby, the guest of Agile Derby. It’s not often that I get to do Kanban-related stuff so close to home, so I’m delighted!

I’ve made some updates to the deck:

  • Encouragement in slide 5 for players to discuss their moves in a “standup” meeting.
  • “One of” and “Both” in slide 5 and what is now slide 8 are shown in bold. These are easily missed if not emphasised by the facilitator.
  • An additional debrief slide after each of the first two rounds, mentioning over the course of the two rounds all six core practices and their corresponding values (five out of nine). Feedback on this change has been very positive.

In the second debrief, facilitators should draw a distinction between visual management and the operation of true kanban systems. I make a point not to mention “collaboration” until it is mentioned from the floor (which it will, without fail). The likely mention of “multitasking” is the invitation to discuss how we have succeeded in limiting work in progress across the whole flow, and why that’s important.

A French translation is now available and a German translation is in the works; ping me for an introduction if you need one. If you’d like to make a new translation or any other derivative work you don’t actually need my permission (Featureban is published under a sufficiently friendly license) but do drop me a line if you’d like the original PowerPoint slides rather than the PDFs (see the Resources link above).

Kanban from the Inside: 3. Collaboration

This is the third installment in a roughly weekly series of short excerpts from my book, Kanban from the Inside. Chapter 3 covers the third of the Kanban Method’s nine values, balance.

I find it helpful to think of collaboration as something quite concrete, bringing to mind some specific examples of famous creative collaborations. Lennon and McCartney, Watson and Crick, Marie and Pierre Curie—these are collaborations that have made huge impact, not just in their chosen fields, but in popular consciousness, too. These aren’t just people being nice, cooperating with each other in some general way; these are relationships in which the whole is somehow much greater than the sum of its parts, where creative energy exists between those involved as well as inside each one individually.

We can’t expect every workplace collaboration to be quite as spectacularly productive as these examples, but if our knowledge-based organizations can’t generate some excess creativity over what each individual can generate on his or her own, why do they exist at all?*

*(footnote) Why do firms exist? Economists still wrestle with that. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_the_firm and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge-based_theory_of_the_firm

Next up: 4. Customer Focus. Previously 2. Balance: Start from the beginning: 1. Transparency.

Kanban from the Inside: 2. Balance

I’m posting every week or so some short excerpts from my book, Kanban from the Inside. Chapter 2 covers the second of the Kanban Method’s nine values, balance.

Balance Demand versus Capability

Inside the system, we balance workload against the system’s capacity, both for the sake of the people doing the work and for the improved performance and predictability that comes as a result. But it doesn’t have to stop there.

Interesting things happen when your system’s capability to deliver against each category becomes known. You can help your customers to make better-informed choices. This in turn has an upstream effect, an effect on how work flows from the customer. Managed proactively, this is demand shaping, a way to improve outcomes still further by promoting balance across a broader scope of a system and over longer timespans.

Work item categorizations and classes of service help you manage to multiple time horizons simultaneously. There’s no point in remarkable delivery rates in the short term if we’re busy bankrupting ourselves through insufficient attention to sustainability. Likewise, we can’t be forever spending our investors’ money on long-term work so nebulous or grandiose that customer value will never be delivered.

In a nutshell, Kanban helps you balance demand versus capability over a range of timespans. This is a powerful management strategy to apply both inside and outside the system.

Seeking Balance

Balance is a strange thing—we really enjoy it when it’s there, but achieving it takes anticipation, vigilance, and effort, sometimes even the occasional breakthrough. For me, it is this—as much as the significant technical merits of WIP-limited pull systems—that makes balance such an important value.

To help bring balance into your application of Core Practice 2, try prefacing it with “Find ways to”:

  • Find ways to limit work-in-progress, using every available lever.
  • Find ways to limit work-in-progress at every organizational level, looking for ways to bring those deeper imbalances to the surface as trust is built.

Perhaps you can come up with a phrase that captures the essence of your organization’s current need for balance. It’s a trick that works with other practices too.

Next up: 2. Collaboration. Previously: 1. Transparency.


Kanban from the Inside: 1. Transparency

I’ll be posting every week or so some short excerpts from my book, Kanban from the Inside. Let’s start at the beginning, with chapter 1, the subject of which is the first of the Kanban Method’s nine values, transparency.

With Kanban, the purpose of visualization and other forms of transparency is twofold: to make the need for action visible and to help people make good choices. These operate at two levels:

  • Action in the form of work that needs to be done; good choices in the selection of work items
  • Action in the form of changes to the system; good choices in justifying, scoping, and implementing change

There’s a virtuous circle at play here:

  • The kanban system organizes the work.
  • People organize themselves around the work.
  • From their fresh perspective, people see that the kanban system could organize the work better than it currently does, and they change it.

Coming soon in this series: 2. Balance.

Two years on

I deliberately delayed the usual end-of-year review to today, the 3rd of January. It’s the second anniversary of my post Introducing Kanban through its Values and I was curious to see how well it was holding up. It is after all the seed that grew into my personal highlight of 2014, the publication in September of my book Kanban from the Inside.

Although the margin isn’t huge, I am not at all surprised to find that this two year old post tops the list of most-read pages of 2014:

  1. Introducing Kanban through its values
  2. Kanban Values exercise released
  3. My book: Kanban from the Inside
  4. STATIK, Kanban’s hidden gem
  5. Announcing Featureban
  6. “How deep” rebooted: values-based depth assessment
  7. Kanban: values, understanding & purpose
  8. Pulling change through the system
  9. A process of knowledge discovery
  10. Understand motivation for change

#7 is representative of 2013 – a followup to #1 and part of a journey of rapid exploration. The 2014 posts represent the fruit of that earlier work, ideas and tools rounded out and made reusable through the writing of my book. I’m thrilled that others refer to STATIK without my prompting (I declared it a success in July). The values exercise and Featureban are popular on slideshare. Matt Phillip flew across to Europe to describe (among other things) his company’s use of the assessment tool (see his deck The Kanban Iceberg; the video of his London talk should be available soon).

What does 2015 hold? For the next three months at least, more delivery management work with Valtech on UK government digital projects. Some private training classes no doubt, and (fingers crossed) a new 1-day public class “Inside Kanban”, probably in partnership with our growing community of UK-based training providers. I have other irons in the fire, but beyond March I’m still open to offers, whether it’s consultancy, training, or interim management.

In the meantime we’re moving house. A second foster daughter joined our family last year, and a Georgian cottage built into a Derbyshire hillside no longer meets our accessibility requirements. The new house is a bungalow on the edge of Wingerworth – still Derbyshire, but flatter and much closer to motorway and intercity railway links. Can’t wait!

Featureban updates

For the uninitiated, Featureban is a simple and fun kanban simulation game.

Minor tweaks to wording on the facilitation deck (slideshare, pdf; drop me an email if you’d like the source pptx file):

There is now a metrics spreadsheet (xls):

Screen Shot 2014-11-28 at 13.22.28

If you or players change the rules in the interests of flow that’s fine, but bear in mind that the flow efficiency calculation assumes that work items require a touch time of two days. Today’s team cheated for a while and ended up with a calculated flow efficiency of 111%!

Fun (almost) guaranteed!

2014-11-28 09.57.57

Understand motivation for change

One piece of feedback I’ve received a few times on step 1 of STATIK (and therefore on chapter 18 of my book Kanban from the Inside also) is that “Understand sources of dissatisfaction” sounds rather negative. What about sources of satisfaction, pride, strength, and so on? Are those unimportant?

It’s a very valid comment, and with David at this week’s Train-the-Trainer class in Cascais, Portugal, we renamed this step “Understand motivation for change”. Ironically, this name existed already as the title for the accompanying class exercise!

We made the change to the Foundations deck right there in front of the class. Other decks and my book will be updated as soon as is practically possible.

As it happens, I am very interested in the positive (the naming of my blog is no accident). My favourite retrospective format—a format that would work well in the context of a STATIK workshop—is the Stanford d.school’s “I like / I wish / I wonder” (“IL/IW/IW”) or “I like / wish / What if” (“IL/IW/WI”) which sometimes I abbreviate to “+/-/?”. In one simple exercise, we find out both what we’d like to change, what we’re keen to preserve, and what needs digging into further.

STATIK requires us to do this from two perspectives, internal and external. As my friend Markus Andrezak puts it, we need both self-awareness and empathy. Let’s strike the right balance between the positive and the negative also. It’s not all bad!

Source: Markus Andrezak